Food Articles

Baking Terminology Glossary

by Diane Yang

Baking Terminology Glossary

Looking for ways to level up your understanding of baking? Look no further!

We've compiled a list of various baking terminologies and nomenclature for you to use! Some you may be familiar with, and others not. Use this to improve your understanding of the wonderful world of baking and it's every-growing list of tools, techniques, and more!

Aerate

To supply or add air into something

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Almond Paste

Made from ground almonds and sugar, with a small amount of cooking oil, beaten eggs, heavy cream or corn syrup

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Allumette

A thin strip of puff pastry. (French word for "matchstick")

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Angel Food Cake

A type of light cake made with the white part of eggs, often baked in a ring shape

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Baba

A type of small cake, often with rum poured over it or soaked in syrup

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Babka

A type of coffee cake flavored with orange rind, raisins and almonds

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Bain-marie

A pan of hot water in which a bowl of food, used chocolate and butte is cooked or melted slowly

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Bake blind

The process of baking a pie crust or other pastry without the filling

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Batch

Quantity of bread baked one time

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Baked Alaska

A dessert made of cake and ice cream covered in meringue and cooked quickly in a very hot oven

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Baklava

A dessert from the Middle East, made from pastry, nuts, and honey

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Batter

A mixture consisting chiefly of flour, egg, and milk or water, can be used s a coating for food that is to be fried

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Bavarian Cream

A cold dessert consisting of a rich custard set with gelatin and flavored in various ways

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Beat

Mix something with short quick movements with a fork

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Blanc Mange

A sweet dessert commonly made with milk or cream and sugar thickened with rice flour, gelatin, corn starch, or Irish moss

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Blend

Mix a substance with another substance so that they combine together

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Blown Sugar

Sugar specially worked and then molded into various shapes with the assistance of a small tube

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Boil

For liquids: to heat the liquid to the point where it forms bubbles and turns to steam or vapour
For a subject: to place something into boiling liquid

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Bombe

A frozen dessert in a round shape

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Boston Cream Pie

A cake filled with a custard or cream filling and frosted with chocolate

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Bran

The outer covering of grain which is left when the grain is made into flour

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Bran Flour

A type of flour made from the outer covering of grain

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Brioche

A type of sweet bread made from flour, eggs and butter, usually in the shape of a small bread roll

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Butter

To spread/add butter onto bread etc.

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Buttercream

A soft mixture of butter and sugar, used inside and on top of cakes

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Caramelize

To turn sugar into caramel, which is in brown

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Challah

Bread in the form of a plaited loaf with rich eggs

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Charlotte

A cooked pudding containing fruit and layers of cake or bread

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Chemical Leavener

A leavener that uses carbon dioxide gas to lighten and aerate baked goods

Related:

not found

 

Christmas Pudding

A hot pudding like a dark fruit cake, traditionally eaten in Britain at Christmas

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Clear Flour

A type of tan-colored wheat flour made from the outer portion of the endosperm

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Chop

To cut something into pieces with sharp tools

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Coat

A layer of paint or some other substance that covers a surface.

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Cobbler

A type of fruit pie with thick pastry on top but without a bottom crust

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Cocoa Butter

Fat that is obtained from cocoa and used in making chocolate and beans, cosmetics

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Coulis

A type of thin fruit sauce

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Compote

A cold dessert made of fruit cooked slowly with sugar

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Crème Brûlée

A cold dessert made from cream, with burnt sugar on top

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Crepe

A thin pancake, typically served rolled around a filling

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Crimp

To press the sides and tops of pie or tart crusts

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Crumb

Small piece of food, especially of bread or cake, that has fallen off a larger piece

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Curdle

A condition when a liquid separates or separate into curds or lumps.

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Custard

A sweet yellow sauce made from milk, sugar, eggs and flour, usually served hot with cooked fruit, puddings , etc.

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Defrost

To remove the ice or frost from something frozen by increasing its temperature.

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Dilute

To remove the ice or frost from something frozen by increasing its temperature.

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Docking

Piercing a pastry dough before baking to allow steam to evaporate

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Dough

A mixture of flour, water, etc. that is made into bread and pastry

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Dredge

To cover food lightly with sugar, flour, etc.

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Drizzle

To pour a thin stream of liquid such as glaze over food

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Dust

To cover with fine powder

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Emulsion

Any mixture of liquids that do not normally mix together, such as oil and water

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Endosperm

The part of the plant seed that provides food for the embryo

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Essence

A liquid taken from a plant, etc. that contains its smell and taste in a very strong form

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Extract

A substance that has been obtained from something else using a particular process

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Fermentation

A metabolic process that converts sugars and starches in bread dough into simpler substances such as carbon dioxide, which causes the dough to rise

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Foaming

To whip eggs until producing a mass of small bubbles

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Fold

To combine heavy and light ingredients in a smooth folding action with a tool such as a spatula

Related:

not found

Fondant

A thick sweet soft mixture made from sugar and water, used especially to cover cakes

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Firm peaks

The top of cream that shapes like stiff or firm peaks, stand straight up when the beaters are lifted

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Frangipane

A sweet almond-flavored custard used in a variety of ways including cakes and such pastries as the Bakewell tart and conversation tart

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Fritter

A piece of fruit, meat or vegetable that is covered with batter and fried

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Gelatinization

The process where starch and water are subjected to heat, causing the starch granules to swell. As a result, the water is gradually absorbed in an irreversible manner.

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Genoise

A whole-egg sponge cake made with a batter containing melted butter

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Glaze

To give the surface of a food shiny surface with a layer of sugar, butter, or any other glossy liquid.

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Gliadin

A class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals

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Gluten

A sticky substance that is a mixture of two proteins and is left when starch is removed from flour, especially wheat flour

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Grainy

A texture of a rough surface or containing small bits, seeds, etc.

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Grease

To rub grease or fat on something

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Hydrogenation

A chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element that can convert liquid oils to solid fats

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Icing/Frosting

A sweet mixture of sugar and water, milk, butter or egg white that is used to cover and decorate cakes

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Infuse

To immerse an item into a liquid and get its flavors

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Kirsch

A strong alcoholic drink made from cherries

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Knead

To press and stretch dough with your hands to make it ready to use

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Ladyfinger

A small long thin cake made with eggs, sugar and flour

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Laminate

A technique where multiple layers of dough are separated by a thin layer of butter created through repeated folding

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Lean Dough

A dough low in fat and sugar

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Leavening

A substance used in dough to make it rise, such as yeast or baking powder

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Linzer Torte

A short, crumbly pastry made of flour, unsalted butter, egg yolks, lemon zest, cinnamon and lemon juice, and ground nuts

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Lumpy

Used to describe something that is full of lumps; covered in lumps

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Lukewarm

Milk or water that is slightly warm

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Macaroon

A soft round sweet biscuit/cookie made with almonds or coconut

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Macerate

To soften a type of food by leaving it in a liquid

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Marzipan

A sweet firm substance, sometimes with yellow color added, used to make sweets/candy and to cover cakes

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Meal

Grain that has been crushed to produce a powder, used as food for animals and for making flour

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Melt

Make something become liquid as a result of heating

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Mince

To cut food, especially meat, into very small pieces using a special machine

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Mix

To combine substances, usually in a way that they cannot easily be separated

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Molasses

A thick, dark brown syrup which is produced when sugar is processed

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Mould

To shape a soft substance into a particular form or object by pressing it or by putting it into a mould

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Mousse

A cold dessert made with cream and egg whites and flavoured with fruit, chocolate, etc.

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Muffin pan

A pan with several cylindrical indents to create the shape of muffins and cupcakes.

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Napoleon

A classic Russian cakes, made of very thin and flaky puff pastry cake layers and a smooth, rich and luscious pastry cream

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Nonstick/Non-stick

To describe the surface of a pan/tool that prevents food from sticking

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No-Time Dough

A method of making bread which eliminates the bulk fermentation by using high-energy mixing to speed up gluten development

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Nougat

A hard sweet/candy that has to be chewed a lot, pink or white in color

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One-Stage Method

Mix together all the wet ingredients in one bowl, mix the dry in another and just add the dry to the wet

Related:

not found

 

Othello

A type of dissert that consists of custard cream, a macaroon bottom and chocolate

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Over-proofing

Happens when dough has proofed too long and the air bubbles have popped

Related:

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Palmier

A French pastry in a palm leaf shape or a butterfly shape

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Parchment

Material made from the skin of a sheep or goat to line baking pans to prevent sticking

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Parfait

A rich cold dessert made with whipped cream, eggs, and fruit

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Pasteurized

A process in which packaged and non-packaged foods are treated in an environment with less than 100 °C (212 °F) to eliminate pathogens

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Patent flour

A type of flour low in ash with a good white color

Related: 

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Peel

To take the skin off fruit, vegetables, etc.

Related: 

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Phyllo

A type of thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava

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Pinch

To hold something tightly between the thumb and finger or between two things that are pressed together

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Pipe

To decorate food with thin lines of icing by squeezing it out of a special bag or tube

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Pithiviers

A type of round, enclosed pie usually made by baking two disks of puff pastry, with a filling stuffed in between

Related:

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Praline

A sweet substance made of nuts and boiled sugar, often used to fill chocolates

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Preheat

To heat an oven to a particular temperature before you put food in it to cook

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Profiterole

A small cake in the shape of a ball, made of light pastry , filled with cream and usually with chocolate on top

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Proof

The final rising stage of the dough before it is baked but after being shaped

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Pullman Loaf

A type of bread made with white flour and baked in a long, narrow, lidded pan.

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Punching

To expel gases from fermented dough by hitting it

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Puree

Food in the form of a thick liquid made by crushing fruit or cooked vegetables in a small amount of water

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Retarding

To delay the fermentation of a dough by refrigerating it

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Rolled-in Dough

A type of dough in which fat is incorporated in many layers using a rolling, folding procedure

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Rolling boil

A vigorous state of maintained boiling in which large bubbles erupt continuously on the surface of the liquid and cannot be disrupted by stirring or adding ingredients.

Related: 

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Royal Icing

A hard white covering for a fruit cake, made with sugar and the white part of eggs

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Rubbing in

A process of rubbing fat (butter, lard, margarine) into flour with your finger tips

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Savarin

A type of ring-shaped cake that soaked with flavored syrup and garnished with cream and fruit

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Scald

To Heat a liquid until to the temperature slightly below its boiling point, when small bubbles form

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Scone

A small round cake, sometimes with dried fruit in it and often eaten with butter, jam and cream spread on it

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Score

To make a cut or mark on the surface of a cake etc.

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Scraggly

Thin and growing in a way that is not even , typically used to describe an overly dry dough

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Scrape

To remove something from a surface by moving something sharp and hard like a knife across it

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Shelf Life

The length of time that food, etc. can be kept before it is too old to be sold

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Shortbread

A rich crisp biscuit/cookie made with flour, sugar and a lot of butter

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Shortening

A type of fat that is used for making pastry

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Sieve

A tool for separating solids from liquids or larger solids from smaller solids

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Simmer

To cook something by keeping it almost at boiling point; to be cooked in this way

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Soft Wheat

A light golden color with more starch and less gluten than hard wheat

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Soufflé

A dish made from egg whites, milk and flour mixed together to make it light, flavored with cheese, fruit, etc. and baked until it rises

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Sourdough

A mixture of flour, fat and water that is left to dough so that it has a sour taste, used for making bread

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Sprinkle

Shake small pieces of something or drops of a liquid on something

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Spun Sugar

Long strings of sugar, used to make decorations for food and to make candy floss

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Stir

To move a liquid or substance around, using a spoon or sth similar, in order to mix it thoroughly

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Stollen

A cake-like fruit bread made with yeast, water and flour, and usually with zest added to the dough (typically served for Christmas)

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Straight Flour

Flour recovered from bolted wheat meal and containing the whole product of milling except bran and shorts

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Strong Flour

A type of flour made from hard wheat kernels with high protein and used for baked goods that require structure

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Strudel

A cake made from pieces of fruit, especially apple, rolled in thin pastry and baked

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Swiss Roll

A thin flat cake that is spread with jam, etc. and rolled up

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Temper

A technique used to raise the temperature of a substance gradually. Typically used for eggs and chocolate. When tempering eggs, a hot liquid is slowly added to the mixture in small amounts to prevent the eggs from scrambling.

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Torte

A large cake filled with a mixture of cream, chocolate, fruit, etc.

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Turntable

A cake tray that can rotate used for cake decoration

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Under-proofing

Happens when dough has not rested enough

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Whip

To stir cream, etc. very quickly until it becomes stiff

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Whisk

A kitchen utensil for stirring eggs, etc. very fast

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Whole Wheat Flour

Made by grinding stone ground dark hard red wheat

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Zest

The outer skin of an orange, a lemon, etc., when it is used to give flavor in cooking

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